Home Scientific Publications of Dietmar Glindemann Business: Glindemann Sealing Rings
Dietmar GLINDEMANN, Publications as author and coauthor
Publications     58 (SciFinder Scholar Data Base)
Publications     55 (ISI Web of Knowledge Cited Reference Search)
Citations       2278   (ISI Web of Knowledge Cited Reference Search)  (16 Oct. 2022)
Publications on Environmental Analysis, Chemistry and Odor Research (phosphine, organophosphorus, organometal, organosulfur, water + waste treatment)
Reprint requests: E-mail: dglinde@aol.com (or click links below to download)
GLINDEMANN, www.glindemann.net     www.phosphine.net

Odor of Money? Money does not smell - until humans touch it !  

(click to enlarge)
Artwork: D. Glindemann / Angew. Chem.

D. Glindemann, A. Dietrich, H.-J. Staerk, P. Kuschk.
The Two Odors of Iron when Touched or Pickled: (Skin) Carbonyl Compounds and Organophosphines.
Angewandte Chemie International Edition (2006), 118(42), 7006–7009. DOI: 10.1002/anie.200602100

In Deutsch:
D. Glindemann, A. Dietrich, H.-J. Staerk, P. Kuschk.
Die zwei Gerüche des Eisens bei Berühung und unter Säureeinwirkung – (Haut-)Carbonylverbindungen und Organophosphine. Angewandte Chemie  (2006), 118(42), 7163–7166 (in Deutsch). DOI 10.1002/ange.200602100

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Externe Links zu dieser Publikation (Presse-Mitteilungen, Zeitungsartikel...)
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 Research on waste water plant odor by industrial DMSO waste
Dietmar Glindemann discovered that Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) industrial waste in sewage produced an odor problem in a wastewater plant in Philadelphia, USA. His research saved the municipality of Philadelphia 20 million US-Dollars.
here the most important of my DMSO publications
Glindemann, D., Novak, J., Witherspoon, J.       Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) Waste Residues and Municipal Waste Water Odor by Dimethyl Sulfide (DMS): the North-East WPCP Plant of Philadelphia.    Environ. Sci. Technol. (2006), 40(1), 202-207.

 Click to enlarge Abstract: This study shows for the first time that overlooked mg/L concentrations of industrial dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) waste residues in sewage can cause “rotten cabbage” odor problems by dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in conventional municipal wastewater treatment.
In laboratory studies, incubation of activated sludge with 1 to 10 mg/L DMSO in bottles produced dimethylsulfide (DMS) at concentrations that exceeded the odor threshold by approximately four orders of magnitude in the headspace gas. Aeration at a rate of six m3 air / m3 sludge resulted in emission of the DMS into the exhaust air in a manner analogous to an activated sludge aeration tank.   
A field study at the NEWPCP sewage treatment plant in Philadelphia found DMSO levels intermittently peaking as high as 2400 mg/L in sewage near an industrial discharger. After three hours, the DMSO concentration in the influent to the aeration tank rose from a baseline level of less than 0.01 mg/L to a level of  5.6 mg/L and the DMS concentration in the mixed liquor rose from less than 0.01 to 0.2 mg/L. Finding this link between the intermittent occurrence of DMSO residues in influent of the treatment plant and the odorant DMS in the aeration tank was the key to understanding and eliminating the intermittent “canned corn” or “rotten cabbage” odor emissions from the aeration tank that had randomly plagued this plant and its city neighborhood for two decades. Sewage authorities should consider having wastewater samples analyzed for DMSO and DMS to check for this possible odor
 problem and that DMSO emission thresholds be established to limit odor generation at sewage treatment plants.
External Links to this paper (Press release of the American Chemical Society):
Other environmental DMSO publications of Dietmar Glindemann
Glindemann, D. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) waste residues and municipal waste water odor. WEFTEC 2005, 78th annual technical exhibition and conference, October 29- November 2, 2005, Washington DC, USA.
D. Glindemann, J.T. Novak and J. Witherspoon. Aeration tank odour by dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) waste in sewage. Water Science & Technology Vol 55 No 5 pp 319–326 (doi:10.2166/wst.2007.194)
Research on Environmental Chemistry and Odor analysis of waste water and biosolids

WERF Report: Treatment Processes (00-HHE-5T (b)) Author(s): GM Adams, J Witherspoon Publication Date: July 2004 · ISBN: 1843396874 (Impacts of in-plant operational parameters on biosolids odor quality: preliminary results of WERF Phase 2 study.)
Subramanian, R., Novak, J. T., Murthy, S. Glindemann, D., North, J. Investigating the role of process conditions in wastewater sludge odor generation. WEFTEC 2005, 78th annual technical exhibition and conference, October 29- November 2, 2005, Washington DC, USA.
Dietmar GLINDEMANN at National Biosolids Odors Research Meeting @ Bucknell University, June 13, 2002 Odor Research at Virginia Tech, CEE
Murthy, S.; Forbes, B.; Burrowes, P.; Esqueda, T.; Glindemann, D.; Novak, J.; Higgins, M.; Mendenhall, T.; Toffey, W..  Impact of high shear solids processing on production of volatile sulfur compounds from anaerobically digested biosolids.    WEFTEC.02, Conference Proceedings, Annual Technical Exhibition & Conference, 75th, Chicago, IL, United States, Sept. 28-Oct. 2, 2002  (2002),     4494-4505.  CODEN: 69EWYB  CAN 140:258120  AN 2004:75703    CAPLUS
Murthy, S..; Peot, C.; North, J.; Novak, J.; Glindemann, D.; Higgins, M.  Characterization and control of reduced sulfur odors from lime-stabilized and digested biosolids.    Annual Residuals and Biosolids Management Conference: Privatization, Innovation and Optimization: How to Do More for Less, 16th, Austin, TX, United States, Mar. 3-6, 2002  (2002),     775-794.  CODEN: 69EVNV  CAN 140:239825  AN 2004:31753    CAPLUS
Murthy S., Kim, H., McConnell, L., Peot, C., Bailey, W., Novak, J., and Glindemann, D. (2002). “Mechanisms for odour generation during lime stabilization.” IWA Biennial Conference, Melbourne, Australia.
Novak, J.T., Glindemann, D., Murthy, S.N., Gerwin, S. and Peot, C. (2002) Mechanisms For Generation and Control of Trimethyl Amine and Dimethyl Disulfide From Lime Stabilized Biosolids. WEF Odors and Toxic Air Emissions 2002 Conference Proceedings, April 29-30, 2002, Albuquerque, NM:.
Forbes, R.H., Adams, G., Witherspoon, J., Hentz, L., Murthy, S., Glindemann, D., Higgins, M.; Card, T., Hargreaves, J.R., and Erdal, Z.. Impacts of in-plant operational parameters on biosolids odor quality: preliminary results of WERF Phase 2 study.    WEF/AWWA/CWEA Joint Residuals and Biosolids Management Conference and Exhibition: Partnering for a Safe, Sustainable Environment, Baltimore, MD, United States, Feb. 19-22, 2003  (2003),     565-585.  CODEN: 69EZAU  CAN 140:326141  AN 2004:79842    CAPLUS
Forbes, B.; Adams, G.; Hargreaves, R.; Witherspoon, J.; McEwen, D.; Erdal, Z.; Hentz, L.; Murthy, S.; Card, T.; Glindemann, D.; Higgins, M.. Impacts of the in-plant operational parameters on biosolids odor quality. Final results of WERF odor project Phase 2 field and laboratory study. WEF/A&WMA Odors and Air Emissions 2004, Specialty Conference, Bellevue, WA, United States, Apr. 18-21, 2004 (2004), 454-467.
Higgins, M.J., S.N. Murthy, J.T. Novak, D.P. Yarosz and D. Glindemann, Toffey, W.E. and Abu-Orf, M.M.  2002.  Effect of Chemical addition on Production of Volatile Sulfur Compounds and Odor from Anaerobically Digested Biosolids.  Proceedings of Water Env. Fed. 75th Annual Conf., Chicago.
M. Abu-Orf; J. Brewster, J. Oleszkiewicz, R.S. Reimers, P. Lagasse, B. Amy; D. Glindemann. Production of Class A Biosolids With Anoxic Low Dose Alkaline Treatment and Odor Management Issues. IWA Norway Conference, Norway, 2003.
Abu-Orf, M. M.; Brewster, J.; Oleszkiewicz, J.; Reimers, R. S.; Lagasse, P.; Amy, B.; Glindemann, D..  Production of class A biosolids with anoxic low dose alkaline treatment and odor management.    Water Science and Technology  (2004),  49(10, Wastewater Sludge as a Resource),  131-138
Abu-Orf, Mohammad M.; Brewster, J.; Oleszkiewicz, J.; Reimers, R. S.; Lagasse, P.; Amy, B.; Glindemann, D..  Production of Class A biosolids with anoxic low dose alkaline treatment and odor management.    Wastewater Sludge as a Resource, Proceedings of the International Water Association (IWA) Specialist Conference, BIOSOLIDS 2003: Wastewater Sludge as a Resource, Trondheim, Norway, June 23-25, 2003  (2003),     177-184
Higgins, M.J., Yarosz, D. P., Chen, Y. C., Murthy, S. N., Maas, N., Cooney, J., Glindemann, D., and Novak, J. T. (2006) Cycling of volatile organic sulfur compounds in anaerobically digested biosolids and its implications for odors. Water Env. Res., 78, 243-252.
Adams, G.M., Witherspoon, J., Card, T., Erdal, Z., Forbes, B., Geselbracht, J., Glindemann, D., Hargreaves, R., Hentz, L., Higgins, M., McEwen, D., and Murthy, S., Indentifying and Controlling the Municipal Wastewater Odor Environment Phase 2: Impacts of In-Plant Operational Parameters on Biosolids Odor Quality. 2003, Water Environment Research Foundation: Alexandria, VA.
Porter, R., Witherspoon, J., Daigger, G., Fahnestock, L., Novak, J.T., Glindemann, D., Burlingame, G., Choudhary, S.A., Lendzinski, R., Suffet, M., and Rosenfeld, P. ASSESSMENT OF ODOR FORMATION MECHANISMS IN AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE BASIN AT THE NORTHEAST WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT. WEFTEC 2004, 77th annual technical exhibition and conference, October 2-6, 2004, New Orleans, USA.
Novak, John T.; Adams, Gregory; Chen, Yen-Chih; Erdal, Zeynep; Forbes, Robert H., Jr.; GLINDEMANN, Dietmar; Hargreaves, J. Ronald; Hentz, Lawrence; Higgins, Matthew J.; Murthy, Sudhir N.; Witherspoon, Jay; Card, Thomas.  Odor generation patterns from anaerobically digested biosolids.    WEF/A&WMA Odors and Air Emissions 2004, Specialty Conference, Bellevue, WA, United States, Apr. 18-21, 2004  (2004),     521-530.
Higgins, M. J.; Adams, G.; Card, T.; Chen, Y.C.; Erdal, Z.; Forbes, R. H.; Glindemann, D.; Hargreaves, J. R.; Hentz, L.; McEwen, D.; Murthy, S. N.; Novak, J. T.; Witherspoon, J.. Relationship between biochemical constituents and production of odor causing compounds from anaerobically digested biosolids.   USA.    WEF/A&WMA Odors and Air Emissions 2004, Specialty Conference, Bellevue, WA, United States, Apr. 18-21, 2004  (2004),     438-453.
Subramanian, Rahul; Novak, John T.; Murthy, Sudhir; GLINDEMANN, Dietmar; North, Jason. Investigating the role of process conditions in wastewater sludge odor generation. Proceedings - Water Quality Technology Conference and Exhibition (2005), 6582-6604.
Glindemann, D., Murthy, S., Higgins, M. J., Chen, Y. C., Novak, J. T. Biosolids incubation method for odorous gas measurement from dewatered sludge cakes. Journal of Residuals Science and Technology. 2006, 3(3), 153-160

Dietmar GLINDEMANN 's Publications on Phosphine and Organometallics in the Environment
The full text of most of the following publications is available by clicking on the titles:
(to receive a free reprint by EMail (as PDF file) email dglinde@aol.com

 Phosphine-publications at University of Leipzig and at Glindemann Environmental Services

Gassmann, G., Glindemann, D.: Phosphan in der Biosphäre. Angew.Chemie 105, 749-751; Phosphane in the Biosphere. Angew.Chem.Intern.Edit. 32 (1993) 761-763 Link
Glindemann, D., Bergmann, A. (1995):      Spontaneous emission of phosphane from animal slurry treatment processing.  Zentralblatt für Hygiene und Umweltmedizin 198 , 49-56
Glindemann,D., Bergmann,A., Stottmeister,U., Gassmann, G. (1996) Phosphine in the lower terrestrial troposphere. Naturwissenschaften 83 (1996) 131-133
Gassmann, G., Glindemann, D., van Beusekom, J. Offshore Atmospheric Phosphine. Naturwissenschaften 83 (1996) 129-131
Glindemann, D., Stottmeister, U., Bergmann, A.: Free phosphine from the anaerobic biosphere. Environ.Sci.&Pollut.Res. 3 (1996) 17-19
Glindemann,D., Morgenstern,P., Wennrich,R., Stottmeister,U., Bergmann,A.: Toxic Oxide Deposits from the Combustion of Landfill Gas and Biogas. Environ.Sci.&Pollut.Res. 3 (1996) 75-77
Eismann, F., Glindemann, D., Bergmann, A., Kuschk P.: Soils as a source and sink of phosphine. Chemosphere 35 (1997) 523-533
Eismann, F., Glindemann, D., Bergmann, A., Kuschk, P.: Effect of free phosphine on anaerobic digestion. Water Research 31 (1997) 2771-2774
Eismann, F., Glindemann, D., Bergmann, A., Kuschk, P.: Balancing phosphine in manure fermentation. J. Environ. Sci. Health, Part B 32 (1997) 955-968
Glindemann, D., Eismann, F., Bergmann, A., Kuschk, P., Stottmeister, U. Phosphine by Bio-Corrosion of Phosphide-Rich Iron. Environ. Sci. & Pollut. Res. 5 (1998) 71-74
(anaerobic bacterial corrosion of iron with a high phosphorus content, can explain published reports on "Free Phosphine" in biogases and on "Matrix Bound Phosphine" in sludges, sediments etc.)
Glindemann, D., De Graaf, R.M., Schwartz, A.W.: Chemical reduction of phosphate on the primitive earth. Origins of life and evolution of the biosphere 29 (1999) 555-561
Cao HF, Liu J, Zhuang YH, Glindemann D: Emission sources of atmospheric phosphine and simulation of phosphine formation. SCIENCE IN CHINA SERIES B-CHEMISTRY 43: (2) 162-168 APR 2000
Liu JA, Yahui CHZ, Kuschk P, Eismann F, Glindemann D: Phosphine in the urban air of Beijing and its possible sources. WATER AIR AND SOIL POLLUTION 116: (3-4) 597-604 DEC 1999
Han SH, Zhuang YH, Liu JA, Glindemann D: Phosphorus cycling through phosphine in paddy fields. SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT 258 (3): 195-203 AUG 30 2000
Han SH, Wang ZJ, Zhuang YH, YU ZM, Glindemann D: Phosphine in various matrixes. Journal of Environmental Sciences 15, 339-341 (2003)
Niu XJ, ... Glindemann D, et al. - Determination of Phosphine in Shallow Eutrophic Water by Gas Chromatography. Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 31, 378 pp (2003)
/Niu, XJ, Zhang JF, Shi XL, Wang XR, Gao GA, Ji JA, Glindemann D. Studies on Microcystis aeruginosa affected by phosphine and its oxidation dynamically released from eutrophic lakes. Journal of Lake Sciences (China), 15, 263-268 (2003).
Zhu, Renbin; GLINDEMANN, Dietmar; Kong, Deming; Sun, Liguang; Geng, Jinju; Wang, Xiaorong. Phosphine in the marine atmosphere along a hemispheric course from China to Antarctica. Atmospheric Environment (2007), 41(7), 1567-1573.
Zhu, Renbin; Kong, Deming; Sun, Liguang; Geng, Jinju; Wang, Xiaorong; Glindemann, Dietmar. Tropospheric Phosphine and Its Sources in Coastal Antarctica. Environmental Science & Technology (2006), 40(24), 7656-7661.
Phosphine-publications at Virginia Tech, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, with Prof. Marc Edwards
Glindemann, D., Edwards, M., Kuschk, P. Phosphine gas in the upper troposphere. Atmospheric Environment 37 (2003) 2429–2433
Glindemann, D., Edwards, M., Schrems, O. Phosphine and methylphosphine production by simulated lightning – a study for the volatile phosphorus cycle and cloud formation in the earth atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 6867-6874.
Glindemann, D.; Edwards, M.; Liu, J. A.; Kuschk, P. Phosphine in soils, sludges, biogases and atmospheric implications—a review. Ecological Engineering 24 (2005) 457–463
Glindemann, D., Edwards, M., Morgenstern, P. Phosphine from Rocks - Mechanically Driven Phosphate Reduction? Environ. Sci. Technol. 2005, 39, 8295-8299
Niu XJ, Geng JJ, Wang XR, Wang CH, Gu XH, Edwards M, Glindemann D. Temporal and spatial distributions of phosphine in Taihu Lake, China. Science of the Total Environment 323 (2004) 169–178.
Ding, LL; Wang, XR; Zhu YX; Edwards, M; Glindemann, D. Ren, HQ. Effect of pH on phosphine production and the fate of phosphorus during anaerobic process with granular sludge. Chemosphere 59 (2005) 49–54
Ding LL, Liang HW, Zhu YX, Mo WH, Wang Q, Ren HQ, Wang XR, Edwards M, Glindemann D. Sources of matrix-bound phosphine in advanced wastewater treatment system CHINESE SCIENCE BULLETIN 50 (12): 1274-1276 JUN 2005
Geng JJ, Jin XC, Wang Q, Niu XJ, Wang XR, Edwards M, Glindemann D. Matrix bound phosphine formation and depletion in eutrophic lake sediment fermentation - simulation of different environmental factors. Anaerobe 11 (2005) 273–279
GENG JJ, NIU XJ, JIN XC, WANG XR, HUANG YA, EDWARDS M, GLINDEMANN D. Simultaneous monitoring of phosphine and of phosphorus species in Taihu Lake sediments and phosphine emission from lake sediments. Biogeochemistry (2005) 76, 283–298
Morton, Siyuan C.; GLINDEMANN, Dietmar; Edwards, Marc A. Phosphates, Phosphites, and Phosphides in Environmental Samples. Environmental Science and Technology (2003), 37(6), 1169-1174
Morton, S. C., Glindemann, D., Wang, X. R., Niu, X. J. and Edwards, M. A  (2004) Analysis of reduced phosphorus in samples of environmental interest. Environ. Sci. Technol.2005, 39,4369-4376
Glindemann, D., Edwards, M., Morgenstern, P. Phosphine from Rocks - Mechanically Driven Phosphate Reduction? Environ. Sci. Technol. 2005, 39, 8295-8299
Other papers of Dietmar GLINDEMANN
(Organometal Environmental chemistry, Physico-chemistry, ...)
Glindemann, D., Ilgen, G., Herrmann, R., Gollan, G.
Advanced GC/ICP-MS design for high-boiling analyte speciation and large volume solvent injection.
JAAS, 17 (2002) 1386 - 1389 (October)

(now a widely accepted interface to connect GC with ICP spectrometers, large volume injection, prevention of graphite deposition, less than 150 oC transferline temperature, almost unlimited interface length and flexibility)
Click to enlarge
Feldmann, J., Krupp, E.M., Glindemann, D., Hirner, A.V., Cullen, W.R.: Methylated Bismuth in the Environment: Applied Organometallic Chemistry 13 (1999) 739-748.
Cullen WR, Andrewes P, Glindemann D, Lehr C, Polishchuk E
Group 15 derivatives in the environment: The cause of sudden infant death syndrome?
Glindemann,D., Maskow,T., Browarzik,D. Kehlen,H., Kutscha,J.:
Role of Azeotropy in Characterization of Complex Hydrocarbon Mixtures by Fractionated Distillation.
Fluid Phase Equilibria 135 (1997) 149-167

Thermodynamics of True Boiling Point Distillation Rectification (TBP, ASTM D1160, ISO 6616, Crude Oil...)
Before this publication, a myth existed that a distillation process with sufficiently high separation power can
Dietmar Glindemann was the first who explored that compounds of multi-component-mixtures (crude oil, petroleum, fuels etc.) that contain different chemical classes like alkanes, aromates, alkoholes.) can not be separated according to their true boiling points by True Boiling Point Distillation (analytical TBP distillation). Even at an infinite number of theoretical plates of distillation (rectification), aceotropic effects cause that individual compounds to not  distill over as pure compounds but as mixtures.
Interestingly, these aceotropic effects of TBP  were BEFORE its experimental detection already theoretically predicted by Dietmar Glindemann using a thermodynamic model of distillation with an infinite number of theoretical plates of distillation. This theory was successfully tested by experiments of the research team by using sophisticated distillation apparatus with a high number of theoretical plates of distillation.

Raetzsch, M. T.; Glindemann, D. Application of the increment method UNIFAC to concentrated polymer solutions.  Acta Polymerica (1979), 30(1), 57-60.
Dietmar Glindemann measured by "inverse gaschromatography (GC)" thermodynamic activity coefficients of industrial solvents (injected) in industrial polymers (as GC stationary phases).

Glindemann D., Glindemann U. Greaseless Taper Jointed Glassware and Containers hermetic tight with new PTFE Sealing Ring. Fusion 2001, 48(2) 29-33
(FUSION is the journal of the American Scientific Glassblowers Society ASGS)


Links to Phosphine in the environment
http://www.degeschamerica.com, use of phosphine for food protection
The Organometallic HyperTextBook, Phosphine Complexes
Undertaining book on Phosphorus: The 13th Element, by John Emsley reviewed by Daniel Rabinovich, Department of Chemistry, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, Wiley: New York, 2000. 327 pp. ISBN 0-471-39455-6. $24.95.